A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Z


Abrahamson E. and Rosenkopf L. (1997), ‘Social Network Effects on the Extent of Innovation Diffusion: A Computer Simulation’, Organization Science, 8, 289–309

Acheterbergh J., Espejo R., Regtering H. and Schwaninger M. (1997) (eds.), Organizational Cybernetics, Research Memorandum, Nijmegen, Netherlands: Nijmegen Business School

Ackoff R. L. (1970), A Concept of Corporate Planning, New York: Wiley

Adolph W. S. (1996), ‘Cash Cow in the Tar Pit: Reengineering a Legacy System’, IEEE Software, 41, May

Aldrich H. (1999), Organizations Evolving, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Alexander C. (1971), Notes on the Synthesis of Form, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press University Press

Alexander C. (1979), The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford: Oxford: Oxford University Press

Allen P. M. (1997), ‘Cities & Regions As Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity’, Environmental Problems & Social Dynamics Series, Vol 1, Reading, UK: Gordon and Breach

Allen P. M. (1998), ‘Complexity, Organisation and Knowledge: The Law of Excess Variety’, in Mitleton-Kelly (1998), 7-29

Ambrose D. (1995), ‘Creatively Intelligent Post-industrial Organizations and Intellectually Impaired Bureaucracies’, Journal of Creative Behavior, 29, 1–15

Anderson P. (1999), ‘Complexity Theory and Organization Science’, Organization Science, 10, 216–232

Anderson P. W. (1972), ‘More is Different : Broken Symmetry and the Nature of the Hierarchical Structure of Science’, Science 177: 393-396

Angell, I. and Demetis, D. (2010) Science’s First Mistake: Delusions in Pursuit of Theory, LOndon; New York: Bloomsbury Academic

Anthony W. P., Bennett R. H., Maddox E. N. and Wheatley W. J. (1993), ‘Picturing the Future: Using Mental Imagery to Enrich Strategic Environmental Assessment’, Academy of Management Executive, 7, 43–56

Applegate L. (1994), ‘Managing in an Information Age: Transforming The Organization For the 1990s’, Transforming Organisations With Information Technology, IFIP Transactions

Argote L. (1999). Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge. Norwell, Mass: Kluwer

Argyris C. (1977), ‘Double Loop Learning in Organisations’, Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct,115-125

Arthur W. B. (1990), ‘Positive Feedbacks in the Economy’, Scientific American, February

Arthur W. B. (1995), Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Arthur W. B. (1996), ‘Increasing Returns and the New World of Business’, Harvard Business Review, July/August

Arthur W. B., Durlauf, S. N. and Lane D. (1997) (eds.), The Economy As an Evolving Complex System II (Santa Fe Institute’s Studies in the Sciences of Complexity XXVII), Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley/Perseus Books

Ashby W. R. (1952), Design for a Brain, London: Chapman Hall

Ashby W. R. (1962), ‘Principles of the Self-Organizing System’, in von Foerster and Zopf (1962), 255–278

Ashby W. R. (1964), An Introduction to Cybernetics, London: Methuen

Ashby W. R. (1969), ‘Self-regulation and Requisite Variety’, in Emery (1969)

Ashkenas R., Ulrich D., Jick T. and Kerr S. (1995), The Boundaryless Organization, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Austin J. L. (1962), How To Do Things With Words, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Axelrod R. (1990), The Evolution of Cooperation, London: Penguin

Ayers R. (1994), Information, Entropy, and Progress: A New Evolutionary Paradigm, Woodbury, New York: American Institute of Physics

Allen P., Maguire S., McKelvey B. (2011), The SAGE Handbook of Complexity and Management, SAGE Publications Ltd


Baden-Fuller C. and Stopford J. M. (1994), Rejuvenating the Mature Business, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Baghai M. A., Coley S. C., White D. (1999), The Alchemy of Growth: Kickstarting and Sustaining Growth in Your Company, London: Orion Business

Bak P. (1996), How Nature Works, New York: Copernicus

Barnard C. I. (1938), The Functions of the Executive, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Barnett W. P. and Hansen M. T. (1996), ‘The Red Queen in Organizational Evolution’, Strategic Management Journal, 17, 139–157

Barrow, J. D. (1991), Theories of Everything: The Quest for Ultimate Explanation, New York: Fawcett Columbine

Bar-Yam Y. (1997), Dynamics of Complex Systems, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Bass B. M. (1981), Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research, New York: Free Press/Macmillan

Baum J. A. C. and McKelvey B. (1999) (eds.), Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Baum J. A. C. and Singh J. V. (1994) (eds.), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Bazerman M. (1994), Judgement in Managerial Decision Making, Chichester: John Wiley

Beatty R. W. and Ulrich D. (1991), Re-energizing the Mature Organization. Organizational Dynamics, 20, 16–30

Beck U. (1986), Risk Society, London: Sage Publications

Becker G. S. (1975), Human Capital, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Beer S. (1979), The Heart of the Enterprise Chichester: John Wiley

Beer S. (1981), Brain of the Firm, Chichester: John Wiley

Beer S. (1985), Designing the System for Organisations, Chichester: John Wiley

Beitel F. (1970), ‘Sketches Toward a Psychology of Learning in Art’, in Pappas, (1970)

Belew R. K. and Mitchell M. (1996) (eds.), Adaptive Individuals in Evolving Populations, Proceedings of the Santa Fe Institute, Vol. XXVI, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley/Perseus Books

Bell D. (1973), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. A Venture in Social Forecasting, New York: Basic Books; London: Penguin

Bell J. S. (1987), Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Belmonte R. and Murray R. (1993), ‘Getting Ready for Strategic Change: Surviving Business Process Redesign’ Information Systems Management, 10(3), 43-56

Bennett K. (1995), ‘Legacy Systems: Coping with Success’, IEEE Software 12(1), 19-24, January

Bennis W. G. (1994), An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Bennis W. G. (1996), ‘Becoming a Leader of Leaders’, in Gibson (1996)

Bennis W. G. and Biederman P. W. (1996), Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Benseler F., Hejl P. M. and Kvck W. K. (1980) (eds.), Autopoiesis, Communication and Society: The Theory of Autopoietic Systems in the Social Sciences Frankfurt: Campus

Berger J., Ridgeway C. L., Fisek M. H. and Norman R. Z. (1998), ‘The Legitimation and Delegitimation of Power and Prestige Orders,’ American Sociological Review, 63, 379–405

Bhaskar R. (1997), A Realist Theory of Science, London: Verso

Blanning R. W. (1992), ‘Knowledge, Metaknowledge, and Explanation in Intelligent Organizational Models’, in Masuch and Warglien (1992), 65–86

Blau P. M. and Schoenherr R. A. (1971), The Structure of Organizations, New York: Basic Books

Bohm D. (1992), Wholeness and the Implicate Order, London: Routledge (Ark paperback)

Bohm D. (1998), On Creativity, London: Routledge

Bohm, D. (1951), Quantum Theory, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Boisot M. (1998), Knowledge Assets, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Bonabeau R. (1999), Making Sense of Networks: Biological and Economic Networks, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, 4 May, London School of Economics,

Bourgon, J. (2011) A New Synthesis of Public Administration Serving in the 21st Century, Kingston,Ontario: McGill-Queen’s University Press

Bourgeois L. J. and Eisenhardt K. M. (1988), ‘Strategic Decision Processes in High Velocity Environments: Four Cases in the Microcomputer Industry’, Management Science, 34, 816–835

Brand S. (1999), The Clock of the Long Now, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson

Brown J. S. (1997) (ed.), Seeing Differently: Insights on Innovation, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Brown J. S. (1997), ‘Research that Reinvents the Corporation’, in Brown (1997)

Brown S. L. and Eisenhardt K. M. (1998), Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos, Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Brown, S. L. and Eisenhardt K. M. (1997), The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1–34

Bruderer E. and Singh J. V. (1996), ‘Organizational Evolution, Learning and Selection: A Genetic-algorithm-based Model’, Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1322- 1349

Bryman A. (1996), ‘Leadership in Organizations’, in Clegg et al (1996), 276–292

Buckley W. (1967), Sociology and Modern Systems Theory, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Burns T. and Stalker G. M. (1961), The Management of Innovation, London: Tavistock

Burt R. S. (1992), Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Byrne D. (1998), Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences: An Introduction. London: Routledge


Caporale L. H. (1999), Molecular Strategies in Biological Evolution, New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 870

Carley, K. M. and M. J. Prietula (1994) (eds.), Computational Organization Theory, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum

Carroll G. R. and Vogel D. (1987) (eds.), Organizational Approaches to Strategy, Cambridge, Mass: Ballinger

Casti J. L. (1990), Paradigms Lost, New York: Avon Books

Casti J. L. (1997), Would-be Worlds Chichester: John Wiley

Casti J. L. (1998), Developing and Applying Complex Adaptive Models, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 15 May,


Caudron S. (1999), ‘Free Agent Learner’, Training & Development 53(8), 26-31

Checkland P. (1981), Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, Chichester: John Wiley

Checkland P. and Scholes J. (1990), Soft Systems Methodology in Action, Chichester: John Wiley

Cheng Y. and Van de Ven. A. H. (1996), ‘Learning the Innovation Journey: Order Out of Chaos?’, Organization Science, 7, 593–614

Chikofsky E. J. and Cross J. H. (1990), ‘Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery: A Taxonomy’, IEEE Software, 13-17, January

Child J. (1972), ‘Organizational Structure, Environment and Performance: The Role of Strategic Choice’, Sociology, 6, 2–22

Christensen C. (1987),The Innovator’s Dilemma, Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Ciborra C. (1995), ‘The Grassroots of IT and Strategy’, in Ciborra and Jelassi (1995)

Ciborra C. and Jelassi T. (1995) (eds.), Strategic Information Systems, New York: Wiley

Cilliers P. (1998), Complexity and postmodernism : understanding complex systems, London: Routledge

Clarkson P. (1998), Learning to Unlearn: Insights from a Qualitative Study of Successful Business Managers, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 15 January,


Clegg S. R., Hardy C. and Nord W. R. (1996) (eds.), Handbook of Organization Studies, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Cohen J. (1977), Reproduction, London: Butterworths

Cohen J. (1989), The Privileged Ape: Cultural Capital in the Making of Man, London: Butterworths

Cohen J. and Stewart I. (1994), The Collapse of Chaos: Discovering Simplicity in a Complex World, New York: Viking

Cohen M. D. (1992), ‘When Can Two Heads Learn Better Than One? Results From a Computer Model of Organizational Learning’, in Masuch and Warglien (1992) 175–188

Cohen R. S., Hilpinen R. and Renzong Q. (1996) (eds.), Realism and Anti-Realism in the Philosophy of Science, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer

Collins J. C. and Porras J. I. (1994), Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, New York: HarperBusiness

Conger J. A. and Kanungo R. N. (1988) (eds.), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Conner D. R. (1998), Leading at the Edge of Chaos, New York: Wiley

Coveney P. and Highfield R. (1995), Frontiers of Complexity, London: Faber and Faber

Cowan G. A., Pines D. and Meltzer D. (1994) (eds.), Complexity: Metaphors, Models and Reality, (Santa Fe Institute’s Studies in the Sciences of Complexity XIX), Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley/Perseus Books

Cowen G. A., Pines D. and Meltzer D., (1994) (eds.), Complexity: Metaphors, Models and Reality, Reading Mass: Addison Wesley

Cramer F. (1993), Chaos and Order: The Complex Structure of Living Things, New York: VCH

Csanyi V. (1989), Evolutionary Systems and Society: A General Theory, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press

Csikszentmihalyi M. (1996), Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, New York: HarperCollins

Csikszentmihalyi M. (1998), Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books


D’Aveni R. A. (1994), Hypercompetition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Manoeuvring, New York: Free Press

Davies P. (1987), The Cosmic Blueprint, London: Heinemann

Davies P. (1989) (ed.), The New Physics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dawkins R. (1989), The Selfish Gene, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Denning P. J. and Metcalfe R. M. (1997) (eds.), Beyond Calculation, New York: Copernicus

Depew D. J. and Weber B. H. (1995), Darwinism Evolving: Systems Dynamics and the Genealogy of Natural Selection, Cambridge, Mass: Bradford/MIT Press

Dixit A. K. and Pindyck R. S (1994), Investment Under Uncertainty, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Dooley K. (1997), ‘A Complex Adaptive Systems Model of Organizational Change,’ Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology & Life Sciences, 1, 69–97

Dosi G., Teece D. J. and Chytry J. (1998) (eds.), Technology, Organization, and Competitiveness: Perspectives on Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Douglas K. L. and Elliott E. (1996) (eds.), Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Douglas M. (1982), In the Active Voice, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Dreyfus H. L. (1991), Being-in-the-World: A Commentary on Heidegger’s Being and Time, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Drucker P. (1994), Post-Capitalist Society, New York: HarperBusiness

Durfee E. (1988), Coordination of Distributed Problem Solvers, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer

Durkheim E (1933), The Division of Labor in Society, New York: Free Press


Eddington, A. (1930). The Nature of the Physical World. London: Macmillan

Edelman G. M. (1987), Neural Darwinism, New York: Basic Books

Ehrlich P. R. and Raven P. H. (1964), ‘Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution’, Evolution, 18: 586–608

Eigen M. and Schuster P. (1979), The Hypercycle: A Principle of Natural Self-organization, London: Springer-Verlag

Einstein A. (1964), Letter to Hadamard, quoted in Koestler, 1964

Eisenhardt K. M. (1989), ‘Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review’, Academy of Management Review, 14, 57–74

Eisenhardt, K. M. and Tabrizi B. N. (1995), ‘Accelerating Adaptive Processes: Product Innovation in the Global Computer Industry’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 84–110

Eldredge N. (1995), Reinventing Darwin, New York: Wiley

Elster J. (1989), Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Emery F. E., (1969) (ed.), Systems Thinking, London: Penguin

Epstein J. M. and Axtell R. (1996), Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press

Ereshefsky M., (1992) (ed.), The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Espejo R. (1989), ‘The VSM Revisited’, in Espejo and Harnden (1989)

Espejo R. (1993), Management of Complexity in Problem Solving, in Espejo and Schwaninger (1993), 67-92

Espejo R. (1996), ‘Requirements for Effective Participation in Self-Constructed Organisations’, European Management Journal, 14 (4), 414-422

Espejo R. (1997), Giving Requisite Variety to Strategic and Implementation Processes: Theory and Practice, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, 17 November, London School of Economics,


Espejo R. and Bowling D. (1997), ‘Viplan Learning System: A Tutorial to Learn About the Viable System Model and its Use’ (software), Aston Science Park, Birmingham, UK: Syncho Ltd

Espejo R. and Gill A. (1996) (eds.), SYCOMT Handbook, Aston Science Park, Birmingham, UK: Syncho Ltd

Espejo R. and Harnden R. (1989) (eds.), The Viable System Model Revisited: Interpretations and Applications of Stafford Beer’s VSM, Chichester: John Wiley,

Espejo R. and Reyes A. (1997), Responsive Accounting: A Grounding of the Informational Domain in the Operational Domain of an Organisation, in Acheterbergh et al (1997)

Espejo R. and Schwaninger M. (1993), Organizational Fitness, Frankfurt: Campus

Espejo R., Gill A. and Gill A. (1996), A Cybernetic Approach to Designing and Implementing Co-operative Work, Aston Science Park, Birmingham, UK: Syncho Ltd

Espejo R., Schuhman W., Schwaninger M. and Bilello U. (1996), Organisational Transformation and Learning, Chichester: John Wiley

Evans R. and Price C. (1999),Vertical Take-Off, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing

Eve R., Horsfall S. and Lee M. (1997), Chaos, Complexity and Sociology, London: Sage Publications


Favre A., Guitton H., Guitton J., Lichnerowicz A. and Wolff. E. (1995), Chaos and Determinism, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Febbrajo A. and Teubner G. (1992) (eds.), State, Law, Economy as Autopoietic Systems: Regulation and Autonomy in a New Perspective, Milan: Giuffrè

Feyerabend P. K. (1975), Against Method, Thetford, UK: Lowe and Brydone

Fiol M. C. (1994), ‘Consensus, Diversity, and Learning in Organizations’, Organization Science, 5, 403–420

Fisher K. and Fisher M. D. (1998), The Distributed Mind, New York: AMACOM

Fishman C. (1997), ‘Change’, Fast Company, April/May, 64-75

Flood R. and Jackson M. (1995), Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention, Chichester: John Wiley

Flores F. (1997), The Leaders of the Future, in Denning and Metcalfe (1997), 175-192

Folse H. J. (1996), ‘The Bohr-Einstein Debate and the Philosophers’ Debate over Realism vs. Anti-Realism’, in Cohen et al (1996), 289–298

French W. L. and Bell C. H. Jr. (1995), Organization Development, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

French, W. L., Bell, C. H. Jr. and Zawacki R. A. (1994) (eds.), Organization Development and Transformation. Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin

Friedkin N. E. (1980), ‘A Test of the Structural Features of Granovetter’s ‘Strength of Weak Ties’ Theory’, Social Networks, 2, 411–422

Fukuyama F. (1995), Trust, London: Penguin

Fuller E. (1999), ‘Complexity Metaphors and The Process of Small Business Foresighting’, in Lissack and Guntz (1999)

Futuyma D. J. (1979), Evolutionary Biology, Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates

Futuyma D. J. and Slatkin M. (1983) (eds.), Coevolution, Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates


Galbraith J. R. (1973), Designing Complex Organizations. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Galbraith J. R., Lawler E. E. and Associates (1993), Organizing for the Future: The New Logic for Managing Complex Organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Galliers R. (1987) (ed.), Information Analysis, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Galliers R. (1992) (ed.), Information Systems Research, Oxford: Blackwell

Galliers R. (1992), ‘Choosing Information Systems Research Approaches’, in Galliers (1992)

Garzon M. (1995), Models of Massive Parallelism, Berlin: Springer-Verlag

Geertz C. (1973), The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books

Gell-Mann M. (1994), The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Gell-Mann M. (1995/96), ‘Editorial’, Complexity, 1 (5)

Gibson J. J. (1969), The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, New York: Houghton Mifflin

Gibson J. J. (1979), The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception New York: Houghton Mifflin

Gibson R. (ed.) (1996), Rethinking the Future, London: Brealey

Gleick J. (1998), Chaos: Making a New Science, London: Heinemann

Gold N. (1998), ‘The Meaning of “Legacy Systems”’, Technical Report 7/98, Dept of Computer Science, University of Durham, UK,


Goldstein J. (1994), The Unshackled Organization, Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press

Goodwin B. (1995), How the Leopard Changed Its Spots, London: Phoenix

Goodwin B. (1997), Complexity and the Participatory Worldview, LSE Strategy & Complexity Seminar, 23 March,


Gordon R. W. (1984), ‘Critical Legal History’, in Stanford Law Review, 36, 57-125

Gould S. J. (1989), Wonderful Life, The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books

Granovetter M. (1973), ‘The Strength of Weak Ties,’ American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–80

Granovetter M. (1982), ‘The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited’, in Marsden and Lin (1982),105–130

Granovetter M. (1985), ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: A Theory of Embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, 82, 929–964

Granovetter M. (1992), ‘Problems of Explanation in Economic Sociology’, in Nohria and Eccles (1992), 25–56

Greenfield S. (1995), Journey to the Centers of the Mind: Toward a Science of Consciousness, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Gribbin J. (1984), In Search of Schrödinger’s Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality, New York: Bantam

Gribbin J. (1995), Schrödinger’s Kittens and the Search for Reality, Boston, Mass: Little, Brown


Habermas J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Boston: Beacon

Habermas J. (1987), The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol 2: Lifeworld and System - A Critique of Functional Reason, Boston: Beacon

Haken H. and Mikhailov A. (1993) (eds.), Interdisciplinary Approaches to Nonlinear Complex Systems, London: Springer-Verlag

Hamel G. and Prahalad C. K. (1994), Competing for the Future, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Hanna D. P. (1988), Designing Organizations for High Performance, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Hannan M. T. and Carroll G. R. (1992), Dynamics of Organizational Populations, New York: Oxford University Press

Hannan M. T. and Freeman J. (1984), ‘Structural Inertia and Organizational Change’, American Sociological Review, 49, 149–164

Hannan M. T. and Freeman J. (1989), Organizational Ecology, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Hart H. L. A. (1983), Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy Oxford: Clarendon

Harvey D. L. and Reed M. (1996), ’Social Science as the Study of Complex Systems’, in Douglas and Elliott (1996), 295-323

Hayek F. A. (1982), Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Hayek F. A. et al (1989), ‘Order - With or Without Design?: Selections from F. A. Hayek’s Contribution to the Theory and Application of Spontaneous Order’ Occasional paper, Centre for Research into Communist Economies

Hayles N. K. (1991), Chaos and Order, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Healey R. (1989), The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics: An Interactive Interpretation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Heidegger M. (1962), Being and Time, Harper & Row

Heidegger M. (1971), On the Way to Language, Harper & Row,

Henderson P. (2000) (ed), Systems Engineering for Business Process Change, London: Springer-Verlag

Herbst P. G. (1970), Behavioural Worlds: The Study of Two Cases, London: Tavistock

Hirsheim R. A., Klien H. K. and Lyytinen K. (1995), Information Systems Development and Data Modelling: Conceptual and Philosophical Foundations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hitt L. M. (1999), ‘Information Technology and Firm Boundaries: Evidence from Panel Data’ Information Systems Research, 10(2), 134-149

Hodgson G. M. (1993), Economics and Evolution: Bringing Life Back Into Economics, Oxford: Polity Press

Holland J. (1995), Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity, Reading, Mass: Addision-Wesley

Holland J. (1998), Emergence: From Chaos to Order, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Holland J. H., Holyoak K. J., Nisbett R. E. and Thagard P. R. (1986), Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning And Discovery, New York: Harper Collins

Holland J., Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press (1994)

Hooker C. A. (1995), Reason, Regulation, and Realism: Toward a Regulatory Systems Theory of Reason and Evolutionary Epistemology, Albany: State University of New York Press

Howard D. (1995), Deployment Flowcharting of Business Processes, Chislehurst, Kent (PO Box 281): Management-NewStyle

Hurst D. K. (1995), Crisis & Renewal . Meeting the Challenge of Organisational Change, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press


Iacovou C. L., Benbasat I. and Dexter A. S. (1995), ‘Electronic Data Interchange and Small Organizations: Adoption and Impact of Technology’, Mis Quarterly, 19(4), 465-485


top of the page ^

James K. (1997),The Complexity of Power Relations: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Complex Systems Thinking, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 17 December,


Janis I. L. (1972), Victims of Group Think, Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Jantsch E. (1980), The Self-Organizing Universe, Oxford: Pergamon Press

Jenkins M. and Johnson G. (1997). ‘Entrepreneurial Intentions and Outcomes: A Comparative Causal Mapping Study,’ Journal of Management Studies, 34(6), 895-920

Joerges C. and Trubek D. (1989) (eds.), Critical Legal Thought: An American-German Debate, Baden-Baden: Nomos

Johnson J. L. and Burton B. K. (1994), ‘Chaos and Complexity Theory for Management’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 3, 320–328


Kahneman D., Slovic P. and Tversky (1982) (eds.), A Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kaku M. (1995), Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey through the 10th Dimension, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Kampis G. (1991), Self-Modifying Systems in Biology and Cognitive Science, Oxford: Pergamon Press

Katz D. and Kahn R. L. (1966), The Social Psychology of Organizations, New York: Wiley

Katz D., Kahn R. L. and Adams J. S. (1980) (eds.), The Study of Organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Katzenbach J. R. and Smith D. K. (1993),The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Kauffman S. (1993), Origins of Order: Self-Organisation and Selection in Evolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Kauffman S. (1995), At Home in the Universe – The Search for the Laws of Self Organisation and Complexity, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Kauffman S. and Macready W. (1995), ‘Technological Evolution and Adaptive Organizations’, Complexity 1(2), 26-43

Kaye B. (1993), Chaos & Complexity, New York: VCH

Keen P. G. W. (1994), Shaping the Future: Business Design through Information Technology, Boston: Harvard Business School Press,

Kegan R. (1994), In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Kelly K. (1995), Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World, Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley

Kelly S. and Allison M. A. (1999), The Complexity Advantage, New York: McGraw-Hill

Kelly S. and Davis C. (1998), The Complexity Advantage, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 11 November,


Kierkegaard S. (1985), Fear and Trembling, London: Penguin

Klimoski R. and Mohammed S. (1994), ‘Team Mental Model: Construct or Metaphor?”, Journal of Management, 20, 403–437

Koestler A. (1979), The Act of Creation, London: Penguin

Kohonen T. (1984), Self-organization and Associative Memory, London: Springer-Verlag

Kolb D. (1984), Experiential Learning, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Kotter J. P. (1996), Leading Change. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Koza M. P. and Lewin A. (1998), ‘The Co-evolution of Strategic Alliances’, Organization Science, 9, 255–264.

Krackhardt D. (1992), ‘The Strength of Strong Ties: The Importance of Philos in Organizations’, in Nohria and Eccles (1992), 216- 239

Kretchmer G., Klimis G. M. and Choi C. J. (1999), ‘Increasing Returns and Social Contagion in Cultural Industries’, British Journal of Management, 10(Special Issue), s61-s72

Kroeger O. (with Thuesen J. M.) (1992), Type Talk at Work, Dell Publishing

Kuhn T. S. (1996, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago


Laborit H. (1968), Biologie et Structure, Paris: Gallimard

Lack D. L. (1971), Ecological Isolation in Birds, Oxford: Blackwell

Lam L. and Naroditsky V. (1992) (eds.), Modelling Complex Phenomena, New York: Springer-Verlag

Land F. (1988), ‘Information Systems and Complexity’, IEE Proceedings, 135(Part A, 6)

Land F. and Kennedy-McGregor (1987), ‘Information and Information Systems: Concepts and Perspectives’, in Galliers (1987)

Lane D. A. and Maxfield R. (1997), ‘Foresight, Complexity and Strategy’, in Arthur, Durlauf and Lane (1997)

Lane D. and Maxfield R. (1996), ‘Strategy under Complexity: Fostering Generative Relationships’, International Journal of Strategic Management: Long Range Planning, 29(2), 215-231

Langsford A. and Moffett J. D. (1993), Distributed Systems Management, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Laszlo E. (1991), The Age of Bifurcation, Reading, UK: Gordon and Breach

Laszlo E. (1993), The Evolution of Cognitive Maps, Paradigms for the 21st Century, Reading, UK: Gordon and Breach

Lawrence P. R. and Lorsch J. R. (1969), Developing Organizations: Diagnosis and Action, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Lehman M.M. (1996), ‘Laws of Software Evolution Revisited’, in EWSPT96, LNCS 1149, London: Springer Verlag, 08-124 (and at

Lempert R. (1987), ‘The Autonomy of Law: Two Visions Compared’, in Teubner (1987), 152-90

Leonard-Barton D. (1995), Wellsprings of Knowledge, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press

Levin S. A. (1999), Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons, Reading, Mass: Perseus Books

Levine D. S. (1991), Introduction to Neural and Cognitive Modeling, London: Erlbaum

Levins R. (1968), Evolution in Changing Environments, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Levinthal D. A. (1997), ‘Adaptation on Rugged Landscapes’, Management Science, 43, 934–950

Levinthal D. A. (1998), ‘The Slow Pace of Rapid Technological Change: Gradualism and Punctuation in Technological Change’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 7, 217–247

Levinthal D. A. and Warglien M. (1999), ‘Landscape Design: Designing for Local Action in Complex Worlds’, Organization Science, 10, 342–357

Levy D. (1994), ‘Chaos Theory and Strategy: Theory, Application and Managerial Implications’, Strategic Management Journal, 15, 167–178

Lewin R. (1993), Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos, London: Macmillan

Lewin R. and Regine B. (1999), The Soul At Work: Unleashing the Power of Complexity Science for Business Success, London: Orion Business Books

Leydesdorff L. (1996), ‘Luhmann’s Sociological Theory: Its Operationalization and Future Perspectives’, Social Science Information Sur Les Sciences Sociales, 35(2), 283-306

Liebeskind J. P., Oliver A. L., Zucker L. and Brewer M. (1996), ‘Social Networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms’, Organization Science, 7, 428–443

Lippman S. A. and Rumelt R. P. (1982), ‘Uncertain Imitability: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency Under Competition’, Bell Journal of Economics, 13, 418–438

Lissack M. (1997), Complexity Metaphors and the Management of a Knowledge-based Enterprise: An Exploration of Discovery,


Lissack M. and Guntz H. (1999), Managing the Complex, Boston: Quorum Books

Lissack M. and Roos J. (1999), The Next Common Sense: Mastering Corporate Complexity Through Coherence, London: N. Brealey Publishing

Lomi A. and Larsen E. R. (1999), ‘Evolutionary Models of Local Interaction: A Computational Perspective’, in Baum and McKelvey (1999)

Lorenz E. N. (1963), ‘Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow’, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 20, 130–141

Luhmann N. (1983), ‘The Improbability of Communication’, International Social Science Journal, 23(1), 122-132

Luhmann N. (1987), ‘Closure and Openness: On Reality in the World of Law’, in Teubner (1987), 335-48

Luhmann N. (1990), Essays on Self Reference, New York: Columbia University Press

Luhmann N. (1992), ‘Operational Closure and Structural Coupling: The Differentiation of the Legal System’ Cardozo Law Review 13(5), 1419-1441

Luhmann N. (1992), Social Systems Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press

Luhmann N. (1992), ‘The Coding of the Legal System’, in Febbrajo and Teubner (1992), 145-86


Maguire S. and McKelvey B. (1999) (eds.), Special Issue on Complexity and Management: Where Are We?, Emergence 1(2)

Mainzer K. (1996), Thinking in Complexity: The Complex Dynamics of Matter, Mind and Mankind, London: Springer-Verlag

Mandelbrot B. (1977), The Fractal Geometry of Nature, San Francisco:: W. H. Freeman

March J. G. (1991), ‘Exploration and Exploitation in Organization Learning’, Organization Science, 2, 71–87

March J. G. and Simon H. A. (1958), Organizations, New York: Wiley

Marsden P. V. and Lin N. (1982) (eds), Social Structures and Network Analysis, Beverly Hills, California: Sage

Martin J. (1992), Cultures in Organizations: Three Perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Martin J. and P. Frost (1996), ‘The Organizational Culture War Games: A Struggle for Intellectual Dominance,’, in Clegg et al (1996), 599–621

Maruyama M. (1963), ‘The Second Cybernetics: Deviation-amplifying Mutual Causal Processes’, American Scientist, 51,164–79

Masuch M. and Warglien M. (1992) (eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Organization and Management Theory, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science

Maturana H. R. (1972) (unpublished), The Neurophysiology of Cognition, Biological Computer Laboratories, Illinois University

Maturana H. R. (1981), ‘Autopoiesis’, in Zeleny (1981), 21-33

Maturana H. R. (1982), Erkennen: Die Organisation und Verkörperung von Wirklichkeit, Braunschweig: Vieweg

Maturana H. R. and Varela F. J. (1980), Autopoiesis and Cognition Boston: Reidel

Maturana H. R. and Varela F. J. (1988), Tree of Knowledge: Biological Roots of Human Understanding, Boston: Shambhala

May R. (1994), The Courage to Create, New York: W. W. Norton

Maynard Smith J. and Szathmáry E. (1995), The Major Transitions in Evolution, Oxford: Freeman and Spektrum

McCarthy I. (1998), ‘Cladistics: A Tool for Analysing Patterns of Organisational Evolution’, in Mitleton-Kelly (1998), 63-72

McKelvey B (1999), ‘Visionary Leadership vs Distributed Intelligence: Strategy, Microcoevolution, Complexity’, in Proceedings of EIASM Workshop, Brussels:

McKelvey B. (1999), ‘Complexity Theory in Organization Science: Seizing the Promise or Becoming a Fad?’, Emergence, 1, 3–32

McKelvey B. (1999), ‘Self-organization, Complexity, Catastrophe, and Microstate Models at the Edge of Chaos’, in Baum and McKelvey (1999), 279-307

McKelvey, B. (1982), Organizational Systematics: Taxonomy, Evolution, Classification, Berkeley, California: University of California Press

McKelvey, B. (1997). “Quasi-natural Organization Science,” Organization Science, 8, 351- 380

McKelvey, B. (1999), ‘Avoiding Complexity Catastrophe in Coevolutionary Pockets: Strategies for Rugged Landscapes’, Organization Science, 10, 294–321

McMaster M. D. (1996), The Intelligence Advantage: Organizing for Complexity, London: Butterworth-Heinemann

Merry U (1995), Coping with Uncertainty: Insights from the New Sciences of Chaos, Self-Organization and Complexity, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger

Meyer M. W. and Zucker L. G. (1989), Permanently Failing Organizations, Newbury Park, California: Sage

Miller D. (1999), ‘Selection Processes Inside Organizations: The Self-reinforcing Consequences of Success’, in Baum and McKelvey (1999), 93–109

Mills R. (1994), Space, Time and Quanta: An Introduction to Contemporary Physics, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Miner A. S. (1994), ‘Seeking Adaptive Advantage: Evolutionary Theory and Managerial Action’, in Baum and Singh (1994), 76–89

Mingers J. (1995), Self-producing Systems: Implications and Applications of Autopoiesis, New York: Plenum Press

Miringoff M., Miringoff, M. L. and Opdyke S. (1999), The Social Health of the Nation, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mitleton-Kelly E. (2000), ‘Complexity: Partial Support for BPR?’, in Henderson (2000)

Mitleton-Kelly E. and Papaefthimiou M-C (2000), ‘Co-evolution and an Enabling Infrastructure: A Solution To Legacy?’, in Henderson (2000)

Mitleton-Kelly E. and Papaefthimiou M-C (2000), ‘Co-evolution of Diverse Elements Interacting within a Social System’, FEAST 2000 International Workshop on ‘Feedback and Evolution in Software and Business Processes’, London Imperial College, July 10-12,


Mitleton-Kelly E., ‘Organisations as Complex Evolving Systems’, in Mitleton-Kelly (1998), and


Mitleton-Kelly, E. (1998) (ed), Proceedings of the Organisations as Complex Evolving Systems Conference, Warwick, UK: University of Warwick and London: London School of Economics and Political Science

Monsarrat K. W. (1937), Human Understanding and its World, Liverpool/London: University Press of Liverpool/Hodder and Stoughton

Montgomery C. A., (1995) (ed.), Resource-Based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm: Towards a Synthesis, Norwell, Mass: Kluwer

Morecroft J. D. W. (1999), ‘Management Attitudes, Learning and Scale in Successful Diversification: A Dynamic and Behavioural Resource System View’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 50(4), 315-336

Morgan G. (1997), Images of Organization, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Morin E. (1977), La Méthode: la Nature de la Nature, Paris: Seuil

Morowitz H. and Singer J. (1995) (eds.), The Mind, the Brain, and Complex Adaptive Systems (Santa Fe Institute’s Studies in the Sciences of Complexity XXII), Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley/Perseus Books

Morrison F. (1991), The Art of Modeling Dynamic Systems, New York: Wiley Interscience

Mosakowski E. (1997), ‘Strategy Making Under Causal Ambiguity: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Evidence, Organization Science, 8, 414–442

Mullender S. (1993) (ed.), Distributed Systems, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Mumford E. (1983), Designing Participatively, Manchester: Manchester Business School

Mumford E. and Beekman G. J. (1994), Tools for Change and Progress: A Socio-Technical Approach to Business Process Reengineering, Leiden, Netherlands: CSG Publications

Muralidharan R. and Hamilton R. D. (1999), ‘Aligning multinational control systems’, Long Range Planning, 32(3), 352-361


Negandhi A. R. (1975), Organization Theory in an Open System, Port Washington, NY: Kennikat

Nelson R. R. and Winter S. (1982), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap

Newman D. V. (1996) ‘Emergence and Strange Attractors’, Philosophy of Science, 63, 245-61

Nicolis G. (1989), ‘Physics of Far-From-Equilibrium Systems and Self-organisation’, in Davies (1989)

Nicolis G. (1995), Introduction to Nonlinear Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Nicolis G. and Prigogine I. (1989), Exploring Complexity: An Introduction, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Nohria N. and Eccles R. G. (1992) (eds.), Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action, Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Nystrom P. and Starbuck W. (1981) (eds.), Handbook of Organizational Design, Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Oliver D. and Roos J. (1997), The Poised Organisation: Navigating Effectively on Knowledge Landscapes, Strategy and Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 13 February, http://www.imd.ch/fac/roos/paper_po.html

Omnès R. (1999), Understanding Quantum Mechanics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Oshry B. (1996), Seeing Systems: Unlocking the Mysteries of Organisational Life, San Francisco: Berrett Koehler


top of the page ^

Pagels H. (1988), The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity, New York: Simon and Schuster

Pappas G., (1970) (ed.), Concepts in Art and Education, London: Macmillan

Parker D. and Stacey R. (1994), ‘Chaos, Management and Economics: The Implications of Non-Linear Thinking’, Hobart Paper 125, Institute of Economic Affairs

Parsons T. (1971), The System of Modern Societies, New York: Prentice-Hall

Peak D. and Frame M. (1994), Chaos Under Control: The Art and Science of Complexity, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Perrow C. (1992), ‘Small Firm Networks’, in Nohria and Eccles (1992), 445–470

Peters T. J. and Waterman R. H. (1982), In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies, New York: Harper & Row

Peterson A. (1968), Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophical Tradition, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Pfeffer J. (1993), ‘Barriers to the Advancement of Organizational Science: Paradigm Development as a Dependent Variable, Academy of Management Review, 18, 599–620

Pfeffer J. (1997), New Directions for Organization Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Piaget J. (1971), Biology and Knowledge, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Pianka E. R. (1976), ‘Natural Selection of Optimal Reproductive Tactics,’ American Zoologist, 16, 775–784

Pianka E. R. (1994), Evolutionary Ecology, New York: HarperCollins

Podolny J. M. and Baron J. N. (1997), ‘Resources and Relationships: Social Networks and Mobility in the Workplace’, American Sociological Review, 62, 673–693

Polanyi M. (1958), Personal Knowledge, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Porter M. E. (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: Free Press

Porter M. E. (1985), Competitive Advantage, New York: Free Press

Porter M. E. (1996), ‘What is strategy?’, Harvard Business Review, 74, 61-78

Prahalad C. K. and Hamel G. (1990), ‘The Core Competence of the Corporation’, Harvard Business Review, 68, 78–91

Pratchett T., Cohen J. and Stewart I. (1999), The Science of Discworld, London: Ebury Press

Pratt J., Gordon P. and Plamping, D. (1999), Working Whole Systems: Putting Theory into Practice in Organisations, London: King’s Fund

Prietula M. J., Carley K. M. and Gasser L. (1998) (eds.), Simulating Organizations: Computational Models of Institutions and Groups, Boston, Mass: MIT Press

Prigogine I. (1962), Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, New York: Wiley Interscience

Prigogine I. (1980), From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

Prigogine I. (1990), ‘Time and the Problem of the Two Cultures’ First International Dialogue on the Transition to Global Society, Landegg Academy, September

Prigogine I. and Stengers I. (1984), Order Out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue with Nature, London: Heinemann


Reed M. and Harvey D. L. (1992), ‘The New Science and the Old: Complexity and Realism in the Social Sciences’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 22, 356-379

Reed M. and Hughes M. (1992) (eds.), Rethinking Organization: New Directions in Organization Theory and Analysis, London: Sage

Reiner J. M. (1968), The Organism as an Adaptive Control System, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Roper S. (1998), ‘Entrepreneurial Characteristics, Strategic Choice and Small Business Performance’, Small Business Economics, 11(1), 11-24

Rosenhead J. (1998), Complexity Theory And Management Practice (Working Paper Series, LSEOR 98.25), London: London School of Economics and Political Science

Rothstein J. (1958), Communication, Organization and Science, Indian Hills, Colorado: Falcon’s Wing Press

Rumelt R. P., Schendel D. E. and Teece D. J. (1994) (eds.), Fundamental Issues in Strategy: A Research Agenda, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press


top of the page ^

Sarkar M., Butler B. and Steinfield C. (1998), ‘Cybermediaries in Electronic Marketspace: Toward Theory Building’, Journal of Business Research, 41(3), 215-221

Schneider F. B. (1993), ‘What Good are Models and What Models are Good?’, in Mullender (1993), 17-26

Schoonhoven C. B. and Jelinek M. (1990), ‘Dynamic Tension in Innovative, High Technology Firms: Managing Rapid Technological Change Through Organizational Structure’, in von Glinow and Mohrman (1990), 90–118

Schrödinger E. (1944), What is Life: The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Schwartz, P. and J. Ogilvy (1979), The Emergent Paradigm: Changing Patterns of Thought and Belief (Analytic Report 7, Values and Lifestyle Program), Menlo Park, California: SRI International

Scott A. (1982), Nonlinear Science: Emergence and Dynamics of Coherent Structures, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Scott W. R. (1995), Institutions and Organizations, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Scott, W. R. (1998), Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Searle J. (1979), Expression and Meaning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Searle J. (1983), Intentionality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Segel L. (1995), ‘Grappling with Complexity’, Complexity 1(2)

Senge P. M. (1990), The Fifth Discipline, London: Century Business

Shimony A. (1978), ‘Metaphysical Problems in the Foundations of Quantum Physics’, International Philosophical Quarterly 8, 2-17

Simon H. (1975), Models of Man: Social and Rational, Chichester: John Wiley

Slocum K. R. and Frondorf D. S. (1997), Developing Knowledge Through Dialogue: The SENCORP Management Model, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 3 December,


Smithson S., Baskerville R. and Ngwenyama O. (1994), ‘Perspectives on Information Technology and New Emergent Forms of Organizations’, Transforming Organisations With Information Technology, IFIP Transactions

Sneed H. M. (1995), ‘Planning the Reengineering of Legacy Systems’, IEEE Software, 12(1), 24-34, January

Sommerhoff G. (1950), Analytical Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spencer H. (1898), The Principles of Sociology, New York: D. Appleton & Co.

Spencer-Brown G. (1979), Laws of Form, London: Dutton

Spinosa C., Flores F. and Dreyfus H. L. (1997), Disclosing New Worlds, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press

Stacey R. D. (1992), Managing the Unknowable: Strategic Boundaries Between Order and Chaos in Organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Stacey R. D. (1993), Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics, London: Pitman

Stacey R. D. (1995), ‘The Science of Complexity: An Alternative Perspective for Strategic Change Processes’, Strategic Management Journal 16(6), 477-495, September

Stacey R. D. (1996), Complexity and Creativity in Organizations, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler

Stewart I. and Cohen J. (1997), Figments of Reality: The Evolution of the Curious Mind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Stowell F. A. (1995) (ed.), Information Systems Provision: The Contribution of Soft Systems Methodology, London: McGraw-Hill, London

Suppe F. (1977), The Structure of Scientific Theories, Chicago: University of Chicago Press


top of the page ^

Teece, D. J., Pisano G. and Shuen A. (1994), ‘Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18, 509-533

Tetenbaum T. (1998), ‘Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to Chaos’, Organizational Dynamics, 26, 4

Teubner G. (1987) (ed.), Autopoietic Law: A New Approach to Law and Society, Berlin: de Gruyter

Teubner G. (1993), Law as an Autopoietic System, Oxford: Blackwell

Teubner G. (1997) (ed.), Global Law Without a State, Aldershot: Artmouth

Thiétart R. A. and Forgues B. (1995), ‘Chaos Theory and Organization’, Organization Science, 6, 19–31

Thompson J. N. (1994), The Coevolutionary Process,. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Thompson M., Ellis R. and Wildavsky A. (1990), Cultural Theory, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press

Trist E. L. and Bamforth K. W. (1951), ‘Social and Psychological Consequences of the Longwall Method of Coal-getting’, Human Relations, 4, 3-28

Tsoukas H. (1996), ‘The Firm as a Distributed Knowledge System: A Constructionist Approach’, Strategic Management Journal, 17, 11-25

Tsoukas H. (1998), ‘Introduction: Chaos, Complexity and Organization Theory’, Organization, 5(3), 291-313

Tushman M. L. and Anderson P. (1997), Managing Strategic Innovation and Change: A Collection of Readings, New York: Oxford University Press


Ulrich H. and Probst G. J. (1984), Self-organization and Management of Social Systems, Berlin: Springer

Unger R. M. (1983), ‘The Critical Legal Studies Movement’, Harvard Law Review, 96, 563-675

Utterback J. (1999), Mastering the Dynamics of innovation: How Companies Can Seize Opportunities in the Face of Technological Change, London: Orion Business Books


top of the page ^

van der Heijden K. (1996), Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation, Chichester: John Wiley

van Gigch J. P. (1974), Applied General Systems Theory, New York: Harper & Row

van Valen L. (1973), ‘A New Evolutionary Law’, Evolutionary Theory, 1(1),1-30

van Valen L. (1992), ‘Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks’, in Ereshefsky (1992), 69—77

Varela F. J. (1979), Principles of Biological Autonomy, New York: Elsevier North Holland

Venables M. and Bilge U. (1998), Complex Adaptive Modelling at J Sainsbury: The SimStore Supermarket Supply Chain Experiment, Strategy & Complexity Seminar, London School of Economics, 30 March,


Vickers G. (1968), Value Systems and Social Process, London: Tavistock Publications

Vickers G. (1999), The Art of Judgement: A Study of Policy Making, London: Springer-Verlag

von Bertalanffy L. (1968), General System Theory, New York: Braziller

von Foerster H. and Zopf G. W. (1962) (eds.), Principles of Self-Organization, New York: Pergamon, 255–278

von Glinow M. A. and Mohrman S. A. (1990) (eds.), Managing Complexity in High Technology Organizations, Oxford: Oxford University Press,

Von Krogh G. and Roos J. (1995), Organizational Epistemology, London: Macmillan

von Krogh G. and Roos J. (1995), Organizational Epistemology, London: Macmillan

von Krogh G., Roos J., Kleine, D. (1998) (eds.), Knowing in Firms: Understanding, Managing and Measuring Knowledge, London: Sage


Wagensberg. J. (1997), L’ame de la Meduse: Idées sur la complexité du monde, Paris: Editions Seuil

Waldman D. A. and Yammarino F. J. (1999), ‘CEO Charismatic Leadership: Levels-of-management and Levels-of-analysis Effects’, Academy of Management Review, 24, 266–285

Waldrop M. M. (1992), Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos, London: Penguin

Wallerstein I. (1996), Open the Social Sciences; the Gulbenkian Commission on the Restrucuring of the Social Sciences, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press

Warren I. (1999), The Renaissance of Legacy Systems: Method Support for Software-System Evolution, London: Springer Verlag

Watzlawick P. (1978), The Language of Change: Elements of Therapeutic Communication, New York: Basic Books

Weber M. (1978), Economy and Society, Berkeley: University of California Press

Webster G. and Goodwin, B. (1996), Form and Transformation: Generative and Relational Principles in Biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Weick K. E. (1993), ‘The Collapse of Sensemaking in Organizations: The Mann Gulch Disaster’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 628–652.

Weick, K. E. (1995), Sensemaking in Organizations, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage

Weinberg, S. (1994), Dreams of a Final Theory, New York: Vintage/Random House

Wernerfelt B. (1984), ‘A Resource-based View of the Firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180

Wheatley M. J. (1992), Leadership and the New Science: Learning about Organization from an Orderly Universe, San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler

Wiethölter R. (1989), ‘Procedularization of the Category of Law’, in Joerges and Trubek (1989)

Wildavsky A. (1973), ‘If Planning is Everything Maybe It’s Nothing’, Policy Sciences, 4

Winograd T. and Flores F. (1986), Understanding Computers and Cognition, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley

Woodcock A. and Davis M. (1978), Catastrophe theory. A revolutionary way of understanding how things change, London: Penguin Books

Wurman P. R., Walsh, W. E. and Wellman, M. P. (1998), ‘Flexible Double Auctions for Electronic Commerce: Theory and Implementation,’ Decision Support Systems, 24(1), 17-27


Zeleny M. (1981) (ed.), Autopoiesis. A Theory of Living Organization, New York: Elsevier North Holland

Zimmerman B. J. and Hurst D. K. (1993), ‘Breaking the Boundaries: The Fractal Organization,’ Journal of Management Inquiry, 2, 334-355

Zohar D. (1997), Rewiring the Corporate Brain,. San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler

Zucker L. G. and Darby M. R. (1996), ‘Star Scientists and Institutional Transformation: Patterns of Invention and Innovation in the Formation of the Biotechnology Industry’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93, 12,709-712 & 716

Zuoxiu H. (1996), ‘On the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen Paradox and the Relevant Philosophical Problems’, in Cohen et al (1996), 279–287

Zurek W. (1989) (ed.), Complexity, Entropy and the Physics of Information, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley